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[体育运动] DRONE KNOWLEDGE 2021 Australia

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本帖最后由 gzhjb 于 14-11-2021 18:35 编辑

Three Axes of Movement: Yaw, Pitch and Roll.

Yaw: Vertical (or normal) axis
Pitch: Lateral axis
Roll: Longitudinal axis

The basic components of all aircraft:

1. Wings
2. Fuselage
3. Tail section
4. Landing gear
5. Elevator
6. Ailerons
7. Rudders
8. Propeller (or jet engine)
9. Engine compartments

Control Surface for Particular Axis:
Yaw: Rudders
Pitch: Elevators
Roll: Ailerons

The effectiveness of a control surface depends on: Size, Angle and Speed.

Four forces: thrust, lift, weight and drag.

Quadcopter/quadrotor helicopter/quad Characteristics:
- Is lifted and propelled by four electric motors in combination with fixed pitch propellers.
- Are classified as rotorcraft.
- Lift is generated by a set of revolving narrow-chord aerofoils.
- Use 2 sets of identical fixed pitched propellers: two rotating clockwise (CW), two rotating counter-clockwise (CCW)

Two principles:
- Action/reaction principle (Newton's Third Law of Motion)
- Bernoulli's principle

Total Pressure = Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure

Venturi Effect:
Low Speed = High Pressure
High Speed = Low Pressure

Angle of Attack (AOA): The angle that the aerofoil is presented to the airflow is called the angle of attack.

Propeller Blades Characteristics:
- Blade taper
- Blade twist

The Stalling Angle: Any further increase in angle of attack from this point will result in a loss of lift. This critical angle is known as the stalling angle.

Thrust: The forward force produced by the power plant/propeller or rotor. It opposes or overcomes the force of drag. As a general rule, it acts parallel to the longitudinal axis.

Drag: A rearward, retarding force caused by disruption of airflow by the wing, rotor, fuselage, and other protruding objects. Drag opposes thrust and acts rearward parallel to the relative wind.

Lift: Opposes the downward force of weight, is produced by the dynamic effect of the air acting on the aerofoil, and acts perpendicular to the flight path through the centre of lift.

Weight: The combined load of the aircraft itself, the crew, the fuel, and the cargo or baggage. Weight pulls the aircraft downward because of the force of gravity. It opposes lift and acts vertically downward through the aircraft's centre of gravity (CG).

Lift generated by an aerofoil depends on the following factors:
- Speed of the airflow
- Density of the air
- Total area of the segment or aerofoil
- Angle of attack (AOA) between the air and the aerofoil

Total drag is composed of three types of drag:
- Profile
- Induced
- Parasite

Airflow
- Relative Airflow
- Rotational Airflow
- Induced Airflow

Drone Movements in a Vertical Plane
- Hover Still
- Climb Ascend
- Vertical Descend

Ground Effect is the increased efficiency of the rotor system caused by interference of the airflow when near the ground.

Recirculation is a condition which can occur during a low hover in ground effect.

Translational Lift: When the single main rotor helicopter transitions from hover to forward flight, the tail rotor becomes more aerodynamically efficient.

Wind Shear: refers to the variation of wind over either horizontal or vertical distances.

Angle of Climb: The Angle of Climb (AoC) can be defined as the angle between a horizontal plane representing the earth's surface and the actual flight path followed by the aircraft/copter during its ascent.

Rate of Climb: In aeronautics, the Rate of Climb (RoC) is an aircraft/copter's vertical speed - the rate of positive altitude change with respect to time or distance.

Factors Influencing AoC and Roc:
- Weight
- Power
- Airspeed
- A headwind or tailwind or wind shear
- Bank angle
- Altitude
- Density altitude

POH: Pilot's Operating Handbook

The definition of service ceiling is where the aircraft vertical speed is reduced to 100 ft/min or less.

Turbulence Manoeuvring: Any change in the aircraft attitude due to manoeuvring, turbulence and turning reduces the climb performance somewhat as part of the excess power is needed to compensate for the manoeuvres.

Turbulence Intensity:
- Light: Rise/drop 1 metre
- Moderate: Rise/drop 3~6 metres
- Severe: Rise/dropup to 30 metres

Turning Types:
- Banked turns
- Rotations or flat turns
- Steep turns

VRS: Vortex Ring State

Headwind is wind blowing towards the aircraft.
- Preferred for takeoff and landing
- Increases lift
- Needs a lower ground speed and a shorter runway for the plane to become airbone
- Uses less runway during landing

In multi-rotor headwind helps avoid Vortex Ring State on landing and ground speed is lower at touchdown.

Slipping: If the nose is pointing away from the direction of the turn, it's called "slipping".

Skidding: If the nose is pointing to far in the direction of the turn, it's called "skidding".

The quad will have a vastly increased ground speed when flying with a tailwind or "downwind".

Conversely, when the quad is flying "into" a strong wind its ground speed will be reduced.

Weight X Distance = Moment

Bad Decision-Making Traits:
- Arrogance
- Impatience
- Complacency
- Stubbornness
- Pride

Prior Planning Prevents Poort Performance.

Hope for the best, and plan for the worst.

Practical methods by which you can enhance your decision-making capabilities:
- Always set personal minimums
- Abide by company set minimums
- Use checklist and rules of thumb
- Plan for the worst case
- Allow extra time to perform tasks and plan around it
- Access all available information before making decisions
- Prevent long monotonous tasks, break these down into manageable tasks and consider using checklists to ensure tasks are completed

Ways to avoid fatigue:
- Ensure good rest and sleep practices
- Eat healthy food and maintain hydration
- Be comfortable and avoid prolonged physical discomfort

Threat: A basic rule of thumb is that anything that is outside the pilot's direct control is considered a threat.
- Adverse weather
- Unforeseen mechanical issues or malfunctions
- Reduced visibility
- Traffic

Error: An error is essentially a mistake made by the crew that affects the success of the flight.
- Pilot error (crashing)
- Incorrect setup/ configuration
- Complacency (that leads to errors)
- Inaccurate flight planning
- Incorrect performance calculations

The law requires all pilots manned and unmanned to have a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) below 0.02%.

Five Senses
- Sight
- Hearing
- Touch
- Taste
- Smell

Common Eye Disorders:
- Myopia (Nearsightedness)
- Hyperopia (Far-sightedness)
- Presbyopia

Spatial Disorientation is defined as the inability of a pilot to correctly interpret aircraft attitude, altitude or airspeed in relation to the Earth or other points of reference.

Empty Field Myopia (Empty Space Myopia)
Empty field or empty space myopia is a condition in which the eyes, having nothing specific within the available visual field upon which to focus, focus automatically at a range of the order of a few metres ahead.

Anatomy of the Human Eye
- Cornea
- Iris
- Pupil
- Lens

How the Huan Eye Works
- Light enters the eye
- Focuses to a pinpoint on the macula
- Light stimulates the nerve cells in the retina
- Messages are sent along the optic nerve to the brain
- Brain uses information from each optic nerve to combine the vision the two

The retina is the light sensitive membrane that covers the back of the eye. This membrane consists of millions of nerve cells which gather together behind the eye to form a large nerve called the optic nerve.

CASA: Civil Aviation Safety Authority

CASR 101: Civil Aviation Safety Regulation/Manual of Standards (CASR 101/MoS)

CASR 101 issued in 1998.

MoS issued in 2019.

RPA are separated into the following weight categories:
- Micro: gross weight of 250 g or less.
- Very small: gross weight of more than 250 g and less than 2 kg.
- Small: gross weight of at least 2 kg and less than 25 kg.
- Medium: gross weight of at least 25 kg and less than or equal to 150 kg (or, for airships, an envelope of 100 m3 or less).
- Large: gross weight greater than 150 kg (or, for airships, more than a 100 m3 envelope).

CASA Regulations: Dos and Don'ts

Dos
- You must keep your RPA at least 5.5 km (3 nautical miles) away from controlled aerodromes and should avoid the approach and departure lanes at uncontrolled aerodromes when aircraft are present.
- You must keep your RPA at least 30 metres away from other people.
- You can only fly one RPA at a time.
- You must only fly during the day and keep your RPA within visual line of sight.

Don'ts
- You must not fly your RPA higher than 120 metres (400ft) Above Ground Level (AGL).
- You must not operate your RPA in a way that creates a hazard to another aircraft, another person or property.
- You must not fly your RPA over any populous areas.
- You must not fly at night.
- You must not fly your RPA over or near an area affecting public safety or where emergency operations are underway.
- You must not fly your RPA in prohibited or restricted airspace.

Points to Consider
- Weather conditions
- Proximity to aerodromes
- Proximity to controlled airspace
- Proximity to any VFR flight routes (lanes)
- Populous areas
- NOTAM's
- Local regulations

Aeronautical Publications
OK2Fly.com.au
Oz Runways
RWY check
Live ATC
Avplan
NAIPS

An Approval will contain the following information:
- Executive summary
- Purpose of operation
- Risk Assessment
- Location
- Date/Time
- Flight schedule
- Map of area
- Airspace requirements
- NOTAM's
- Approvals
- Frequency management
- Crewing
- Ground operations
- Site identification
- Air operations
- Accident/Incident reporting

Approval on the following three aspects: Form 101-09 RPA Flight Authorisation
- Permission
- Area Approval
- Exemption

NOTAM: Notice to Airmen is a service provided by Air Service Australia that gives pilots important operational information regarding flight safety and potential hazards along a flight route or at a location that could affect the safety of the flight.

Three types of NOTAM:
- Head Office NOTAM
- FIR NOTAM (Flight Information Region)
- Location NOTAM

NOTAM Request Form
- Vehicle type
- Time of operation
- Expected duration
- Maximum operation altitude

Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) means keeping the unmanned aircraft in a visual line of sight at all times. This means not flying an unmanned aircraft into clouds or fog, not behind trees, buildings or even partial obstructions.

Rules of the Air
1. Where two aircraft are on converging paths, the aircraft with the other on its right should give way.
2. All RPAs must give way to manned aircraft: 1500 metres horizontally, 500 metres vertically.
3. RPA pilot should land immediately whenever there is a potential conflict, regardless of who is in the right.

Overtaking Rule: The mid-air overtaking rule of aircraft states that the aircraft approaching from the rear must give way, and must pass on the right-hand side.

Rules for Prevention of Collision
- An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right of way and the overtaking aircraft, shall keep out of the way of the other aircraft by altering its heading to the right.
- An overtaking aircraft shall not pass the aircraft that it is overtaking by diving or climbing.

Dealing with an Emergency
The adage is
- Aviate: Fly the aircraft.
- Navigate: Fly the aircraft to a safe location.
- Communicate: Give radio calls as required to maintain safety.

CTAF: Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
- RPA position
- Altitude (AGL)
- Direction the RPA is flying
- Speed of RPA
- Your intentions

ATSB (Australian Transport Safety Bureau): 1800 011 034

Drugs:
- Morphine
- Codeine
- 6-Acetyl morphine
- Amphetamine
- Methylamphetamine
- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
- Methylenedioxyamphetamine
- Cocaine
- Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol
- Benzoylecgonine
- Ecgonine methyl ester

TEM: Threat and Error Management

The height, track and climb or descent instructions are the main elements of airspace clearance.

Uncontrolled airspace is called Class G airspace and all aircraft operating in this type of airspace use the "see and avoid" principle to maintain separation from each other. This system relies on each pilot keeping a sharp lookout for other aircraft and maintaining a listening watch on the appropriate radio frequencies to build up a mental picture of the traffic situation.

Uncontrolled airspace will be where the majority of your RPA operations are completed. Unless you are operating within 3 nm of a controlled aerodrome, are below 400 feet AGL, within VLOS and not over any populated areas, no approvals should be necessary.

Controlled airspace is classified as Class A, Class C, Class D or Class E airspace. It is unlikely that you will ever operate in A, or E airspace, Class C and D is a possibility though.

Types of Map Projection:
- Mercator projection
- Lamberts Conformal Conical projection

Lamberts Conformal Conical Projection Charts
1. World Aeronautical Chart (WAC)
2. Visual Navigational Charts (VNC)
3. En-Route Charts (ERC)
4. Planning Chart Australia (PCA)

Rhumb Line: A rhumb line crosses each meridian at the same angle. As meridians are curved, the rhumb line is curved. A straight line drawn on a Mercator Projection chart will be a Rhumb Line.

Great Circle: A Great Circle is a direct line between two locations. It crosses meridians of longitude at a different angle. A straight line drawn on a Lamberts Conical Projection Charts will be a Great Circle.

Aeronautical Charts:

Airspace Depictions
- Flight information area
- Controlled Aerodromes
- Controlled zone
- Prohibited areas
- Danger Areas
- Radio Frequency boundaries
- Class G airspace
- Controlled area
- VFR route and Lane of entry
- Restricted areas
- Common Traffic advisory frequency (CTAF) and associated airspace

Features Depictions
- Railroads
- Populated places Outlines (Yellow)
- Miscellaneous Cultural Features
- Lakes
- Streams
- Coastal Hydrographic Features
- Elevations
- Roads
- Boundaries
- Hydrography Shorelines
- Reservoirs
- Miscellaneous Hydrographic Features
- Relief Contours
- Miscellaneous Relief Features

Latitude begins at zero at the equator and is parallel, 1 degree = 60 NM.

Meridians of longitude start at zero at the prime meridian (Greenwich meridian). They are curved.

Latitude and longitude is described as degree minutes and decimal minutes.

Key Concepts
- Direction: Direction is described in a three figures group. For example, south is expressed as 180 (one eight zero).
- Runway: A runway is expressed as a two figures group rounded to the nearest 10 degrees.
- Track: A track is the path the aircraft flies over the ground.
- Rhumb: A track crossing a meridian at the same angle makes a rhumb line.
- Heading: A heading is the direction we physically manipulate the aircraft to achieve the desired path over the ground. We express heading in a few different ways, however the most common way is using the magnetic compass heading. It's expressed in a 3-digit format. A heading of North is expressed as 360 degrees. A heading of East is expressed as 090 degrees. The heading will always be into wind.

Clock Code
Clock code is used to describe an aircraft in relation to another. Traffic can be described as a position on the clock or we can describe ourselves in relation to the traffic by use of the clock code. For example, I'm at your six o'clock. In addition, we can further describe the position by adding high or low.

Cardinal Directions/Points are the directions north, east, south and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S and W.

Intercardinal /Intermediate /Ordinal Points are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW) and northwest (NW)

Seconary Intercardinal Direction is the intermediate direction of every set of intercardinal and cardinal directions. The eight shortest points in the compass (NNE, ENE and ESE)

Effects of Wind
- Strength of the wind
- The angle the wind is relative to the aircraft heading
- The speed of the aircraft

Measurement Units used in Aviation
- Distance: Nautical Miles (nm)
- Velocity: Knot, 1 nm/hr
- Visibility: Metres
- Runway dimensions: Metres
- Altitude: Feet
- Pressure: Hectopascals (Hpa), Pressure per square inch (psi), Inches of mercury (Hg)
- Weight: kilograms, Pounds
- Volume: Litres, Gallons (in US)
- Battery Capacity: Milliamp hours (mAh)

Knots = 1.85 Kilometer per hour
Kilometer = 0.54 Knots
Meter = 3.28 Feet
Nautical mile = 1.85 Kilometers
Kilograms = 2.2 Pounds
Pounds = 0.45 Kilgrams

An altitude refers to an object's height above sea level.

Elevation refers to the height of the ground above mean sea level.

Pressure Height is a measure of air pressure rather than a measure of height.

The Internatial standard atmosphere is defined as:
- QNH 1013
- Temperature at Sea Level 15 degrees Celsius
- Temperature lapse rate of 2 degrees per 1000 feet

As altitude is increased, air pressure reduces at a very consistent rate.

Elevation: Height above sea level of the terrian.

Altitude: Height above sea level of the aircraft.

Height: Height of the aircraft flying at an altitude over the land.

Flight Level: Height above the International Standard Atmosphere of 1013 (ISA).

RPA pilots must exercise caution as manned aircraft calculate altitude above mean sea level but RPA pilots calculate altitude above ground level.

Aviation uses Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). The format of UTC is YYMMDDHHHH.

Local Mean Time (LMT): Time on specific latitude.

Local Standard Time (LST): Time determined by the political time divisions of the country.

Eastern Standard Time (EST) = UTC + 10 hours (+11 Eastern Day Light Saving time, EDST)

Central Standard Time (CST) = UTC + 9.5 hours

Western Standard Time (WST) = UTC + 8 hours

Time zones can be found in the visual flight guide and the ERSA (En Route Supplement Australia (aviation)).

Beginning and End of the Day
The beginning and end of the day in aviation refer to the beginning of civil twilight and the end of civil twilight.

Civil twilight refers to when the sun is no more than 6 degrees below the horizon.

As an RPA pilot, you can access the beginning and end of daylight information through NAIPS day and end of day. (First-Light, Last-Light)

Manned Airport Operation
The basic guideline are as follows:
- Left turns unless otherwise specified in ERSA
- 500 ft for low performance (slow) traffic
- 1000 ft for medium performance aircraft
- 1500 ft for high performance traffic
- Aircraft will be lower on base and final

Remember, as per the Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), always note that an aircraft may arrive out of cloud from an unexpected direction.

There are two types of Notice to Airmen (NOTAM):
- Airport NOTAMs
- Head office NOTAMs

NOTAMs are used to alert pilot and crews of information required for safe operation of the aircraft. Remote aircraft NOTAMs are written by CASA/AA/Airport ARO.

NOTAMs contain information regarding the following:
- Aircraft type and height
- Latitude and longitude of area
- Operation area description from nearest known location (Aviation)
- Size and visibility of aircraft
- Broadcast frequency and times
- Periods of activity
- Planned operating levels

GNSS: Globe Navigation Satellite System is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

GPS: the American Government Satellite System, consists of 24 satellites in medium orbit.

GLONASS: the Russian Defence Satellite System, consists of 24 satellites in the medium orbit.

Galileo: is the global navigation satellites system created by the European Union (EU).

There are two frequencies delivered by GPS satellites: L1 at 1575.42 Mhz and L2 at 1227.6 Mhz.

L1 modulated by two codes:
- the coarse / acquisition (C/A) code also known as civilian code
- precision / secure (P/Y) code, reserved by cryptographic techniques to military and authorized civilian users.

L2 only contains the precise code.

GNSS Errors
- Satellite Clock Error - clock drift phenomena
- Ephemeris Error - satellite's location
- Ionospheric Error - ionosphere layer delay
- Tropospheric Error - close to Earth's surface, temperature, density, pressure or humidity changes
- Multipath Error - GNSS signal reflected from an object
- Receiver Error - hardware inaccuracies

Troposphere: 7~16 km
Tropopause
Stratosphere: 50 km
Stratopause
Mesospere: 80 km
Mesopause
Thermosphere: 500 km
Thermopause
Outer Space

Aeroplanes can often fly into and through multiple time zones. Thus all forecasts are expressed in ZULU time (GMT).

GMT: Greenwich Mean Time

Cloud Amounts:
- OVE: Overcast
- BKN: 5-7 Eights of cloud cover
- SCT: 3-4 Eights of cloud cover
- FEW: 1-2 Eights of cloud cover
- SKC: No cloud

Cloud Height
In a METAR or a SPECI the cloud base height is expressed by a 3-digit number and expresses the height in hundreds or thousands of feet.
030 means 030 x 100 = 3000 feet

Abbreviations for Cloud
- ST: Stratiform
- CU: Cumulus
- STCU: Strata Cumulus
- SHRA: Shower of rain
- DZ: Drizzle
- GR: Hail
- TS: Thunderstorms
- Tempo: Periods of up to 1 hour
- Inter: Periods of up to 1/2 an hour

ARFOR: Area Forecast
NOTAM: Notice to Airmen
METAR: Met Aerodrome Report
SPECI: Special Report
AIRMET: Airmen's Meteorological Information
SIGMET: Significant Meteorology Report
NAIPS: National Aeronautical Information Processing System

Synoptic Charts: The synoptic charts indicate the pressure being experienced on the surface of the earth.

The lines on the synoptic chart are called "Isobars" and they indicate areas of equal pressure. Synoptic charts indicate the following:
- High pressure system
- Low pressure system
- Cold fronts
- Warm fronts
- Troughs
- Ridges
- COL

As the air rises and sinks the rotation of the earth causes the air mass to rotate in a particular direction.

In the southern hemisphere this rotation is:
Anti clockwise around a HIGH
Clockwise for a LOW

This rotation is known as the Coriolis Effect.

Thunderstorms can generate high wind speeds and gusts that will exceed the control abilities of most RPA's, as well as producing hail, lightening and severe turbulence. All of which need to be avoided by the RPA.

NAIPS: National Aeronautical Information Processing System

NAIPS can be used to find:
- local weather conditions
- local weather forecast
- area weather forecasts
- NOTAMS

An antenna is used to convert electrical energy into radio waves which enable communication or instruction between two points.

There are usually a radio transmitter and receiver.

Gain is a key performance indicator which combines an antenna's directivity and electrical efficiency.

Gain is measured in Decibels (dBi) and the larger the dBi, the more gain it has.

Directional antennas primarily receive and transmit energy from one direction.

Omni-directional Antennas receive and transmit at a 360 degrees radius, radiating power uniformly in all directions on one plane.

Types of Antenna
- Yagi: long distance directional applications, can reach multiple frequencies
- Whip/Monopole: narrow range, collapsible, for small radios and vehicles
- Dipole: two monopoles facing away from each other, to create powerful signal in restricted
- Loop: like Dipole, reaches multiple frequencies, for TV and RFID system
- Bowtie: another type of Dipole, its angles can be set to work with different frequencies
- Dish: large surface space collects a lot of signal,for high frequenices, TV and sound

RPAS: Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

Radio Frequency Shielding: Electromagnetic Shielding that blocks radio frequency electromagnetic radiation is known as radio frequency shielding or RF shielding.

The autopilot or the control module is the brain of the RPA.

The Main Controller (MC) is the brain of the system, it communicates with the Electronic Speed Controller (ESC) and Remote Controller (RC) transmitter to carry out the autopilot functionality.

It has a built-in Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) which consists of:
- one 3-axis Accelerometer
- one 3-axis Gyro (Gyroscopic Sensor)
- a barometric altimeter for sensing the attitude and altitude

Redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system.

Calibrating the Compass
Calibration Dos and Don'ts

Dos
- Calibrate the compass when app or the status indicator prompts you to do so.
- Follow the prompted instructions of the app to rectify the compass issue.

Don'ts
- Do not calibrate your compass where there is a chance of strong magnetic interference.
- Do not carry ferromagnetic materials with you during calibration.

Altimeter / Altitude Meter
In the RPA the measurement is typically Above Ground Level (AGL) where as in traditional manned aircraft the altimeter measures altitude above mean sea level (AMSL).

Collision Avoidance Sensors

There are two electrodes (electrical terminals) and a chemical called an electrolyte in between them.

Alkaline Battery: An alkaline battery is a type of primary battery which derives its energy from the reaction between zinc metal and manganess dioxide.

Lithium Polymer Batteries.

Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH) are related to sealed nickel-cadmium batteries and the only difference from them is that instead of Cadmium, Hydrogen is used as the active element at hydrogen-absorbing negative electrode (anode).

Battery Safety and Handling
Dos and Don'ts

Dos: Use a safe, fire retardant surface to charge your batteries on, so that if they burst into flames minimal damage will occur.

Don'ts:
- Never charge the batteries unattended. This is the number one reason for houses and cars being burned to a crisp by lithium fires.
- Do not charge at more than 1C unless specifically authorized by the pack vendor.

Battery C Rating: C rating is a rating of how quickly energy can be discharged from a battery (the discharge rate).

For a 2000 mAh battery with a 15C rating, the continuous current that may be drawn out of the battery is 2000 mAh x 15 = 30000 mA, or 30 Amps (A).

Swollen or ballooned batteries should be immediately taken out of service, placed in a bucket of salty water or sand and disposed of responsibly.

An electric motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy or movement.

A 'Kv' value is the no-load rotational velocity of a motor per 1 V of input.

Kv values are reported in units of RPM/V. It gives an idea of how 'powerful' a motor is and how fast it can spin.

A propeller 'size' is reported as either a 4-digit number or as a diameter x pitch value. The 4 digit method is simply a shortened form of the second. 6045 = 6.0 in. x 4.5 in. The first number is the diameter which is measured from tip to tip and the second is the pitch. The pitch is how much the propeller translates in one rotation.

HDOP: Horizontal Dilution Of Precision, the smaller the DOP number, the better the geometry and GPS accuracy.

Watts is a measure of power, i.e., the amount of energy transferred in a certain amount of time. The unit Watts (W) refers specifically to the amount of Joules (J) transferred in on second.

Amperes are a measure of electrical current, which relates to the amount of electrical charge that flows through a conductor in a certain period. In particular, Amperes (A, usually referred to as "Amps") refer to a charge of 1 Coulomb (C) flowing every second.

Energy can be classified as one of the following two types: potential and kinetic.

Potential energy is defined as being energy at rest, or energy that is stored. Potential energy may be classified into three groups:
- that due to position
- that due to distortion of an elastic body
- that which produces work through chemical action

Potential Energy = Weight x Height (foot-pounds or inch-pounds).

Kinetic energy is defined as being energy in motion.

Kinetic Energy = 1/2 Mass x Velocity2

Inertia is defined as a property of matter by which is continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion is a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force.

If you're flying an RPA that weighs 2 kg or less, or you're flying over your own land using a drone that is 25 kg or less, this means you're flying - or planning to fly - under the excluded category.

If you want to fly at night or closer than 30 metres to people, we encourage you to get your Remote Pilot Licence and operate under an RPA Operator Certificate.

Manual of Standard 2019: Part 101 (Unmanned Aircraft and Rockets) (05/04/2019)

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) Part 101

Advisory Circular (AC) 10

RPAS are separated into the following weight classes:

MICRO: Gross weight of 250 g or less.
VERY SMALL: Gross weight of more than 250 g and less than 2 kg.
SMALL: Gross weight of at least 2 kg and less than 25 kg.
MEDIUM: Gross weight of at least 25 kg and less than or equal to 150 kg (or, for airships, and envelope of 100 m3 or less).
LARGE: Gross weight greater than 150 kg (or, for airships, more than a 100 m3 envelope).

Commercial operations utilising a remote aircraft requires:
- Remote Pilots Licence - RePL
- Remote Operator Certificate - ReOC

Pilots are reportable to the Chief Controller who is responsible for all operations under the Operators Manual.

A person may control a UAV in controlled airspace only if he or she:
- holds an Aeronautical Radio Operators Certificate of Proficiency: and
- maintains a listening watch on a specified frequency or frequencies: and
- makes broadcasts on a specified frequency or frequencies at the specified interval giving the specified information.

RPA Pilots are strongly advised to obtain Aeronautical Radio Operators Certificate (AROC). It permits the use of Aeronautical Radio and outlines the correct procedures for the safe and responsible operation of aeronautical radios.

Airspace Classification:
- CLASS A: Operations Prohibited
- CLASS C: Controlled airspace. Clearance is required >400 ft
- CLASS D: Controlled airspace operated by a control tower. Clearance is required >400 ft
- CLASS E: Visual flight rules don't require clearance, instrumental flight rules require clearance
- CLASS G: Uncontrolled airspace noo clearance is required

A person may operate an unmanned aircraft at an altitude above 400 feet AGL within 3 nautical miles of an aerodrome if:
- They have obtained the necessary permissions or approvals from the Civil Aviation Safety Authority using form 101-09.

A person must not operate an unmanned aircraft in such a manner as to create an obstruction to an aircraft taking off from, or runway of an aerodrome.

BAC: Blood Alcohol Content below 0.02 only.

Accident: Under section 18 of the TSI Act, report to a nominated official by a responsible person as soon as is reasonably practical.
Incident: Under section 19 of the TSI Act, report within 72 hours by written notice/online.

ARN: Aviation Reference Number. These are issued to individuals and organizations that are a legal entity. They cannot be issued to business names, consortiums or partnerships.

CASR101: Civil Aviation Safety Regulations

En-route Supplement Australia (ERSA) is part of the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), which is updated and renewed every 3 months.

Commercial operations utilising an RPA under 2 kg don't require a Remote Operators Certificate.

CASR 101.95
A person may operate an unmanned aircraft:
- In or into cloud; or
- At night; or
- In conditions other than Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)
Only if permitted by another provision of this Part, or in accordance with an air traffic control directions.

Visual Line of Sight: An operation in which the remote crew maintains direct visual contact with the aircraft to manage its fight and meet separation and collision avoidance responsibilities.

Extended Line of Sight: An operation where the Remote Pilot (RP) does not have direct visual line of sight with the RPA. However, with assistance from spotters, the Remote Pilot is still able to ensure safe operation of the RPA by avoiding obstacles and other traffic.

As per CASR 101.280 UAVs are not to be operated over populous areas. A person must not operate a RPA within 30 m of people.

Approvals are available to operate over populous areas. The aircraft must have redundancy in motors and batteries as a minimum.

Holders of a Remote Operator's Certificate (ReOC) may operate an RPA closer than 30 m but not within 15 m and only with the express consent of people closer than 30 m (who are not directly connected with the operation of the aircraft).

CASR 101.280, Penalty 25 units.

CASR 101.245, Penalty 10 units.

CASR 101.22, Penalty 50 units.

PRD Airspace:
- Prohibited: Never allowed
- Restricted: If active, approval required from airspace owner (CASA or RAAF or Air Services etc)
- Danger: No approval needed you just need to be vigilant

CASR 101.70, Penalty 50 units.

CASR 101.75, Penalty 25 units.

CASR 101.85, Penalty 25 units.

CASR 101.90, Penalty 25 units.

As per the CASR 101.95, a person may operate an unmanned aircraft in or into cloud; or at night.

Airworthiness is the measure of an aircraft's suitability for safe flight.

RPA Components:
- Airframe, structure or frame;
- Avionics, electronics;
- Control systems;
- Propulsion;
- Power;
- Payload;
- Communications

Pre and post flight inspections should be conducted in accordance with manufacturer's guidelines and operator's procedures in order to ensure safe operations.

RTH: Return to Home technology is an automated function which returns the RPA to the point of takeoff in the event of loss of control link between the Remote Pilot and the RPA.

Collision Avoidance Sensors are now mainstream components that are integrated into many current RPAS.

The aircraft automatically keeps a record of detailed flight data including telemetry measurements, aircraft status information and error messages.

Geo Fencing is a technology that defines a virtual boundary around a real world geographical area.


Standard procedures for RPAS that experience a lost link are:
- return to the point of origin
- loiter to establish Command and control link or
- flight termination at or close to current position

The Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is a critical component in a drone. An inertial measurement unit works by detecting the current rate of acceleration using one or more accelerometers.

For a drone to fly perfectly, the IMU, gyro stabilisation and flight controller technology is essential.

Three-axis gyroscopes measure rotation rate around, 3 axes. The roll, the pitch and the yaw.

The roll measures the rotation around longitudinal axis,whereas the pitch measures rotation around the lateral axis. The yaw checks rotation around the vertical axis.

The "six-axis gyro" refers to an integrated system which consists of a 3D gyroscope or a 3 axis and 3D accelerometer.

Three types of RTH procedures:
- Smart RTH (You press the RTH button)
- Low Battery RTH
- Failsafe RTH (Remote controller signals is lost)

In all cases of system failure the guidance to Remote Pilots is:
- Maintain Visual Line of Sight either directly by using one or more spotters
- Aviate - Keep flying, take manual control where necessary and do not rely on automated systems alone to regain control
- Navigate - Fly purposefully, away from hazards such as people, property, restricted airspace, etc.
- Communicate - Advise other airspace users when an issue arises, particularly if you are flying close to controlled airspace.

Attach the black propeller nuts onto the motors with black dots and spin them counter-clockwise to secure.

Attach the silver propeller nuts onto the motors without black dots and spin them clockwise to secure.

Do not calibrate your compass where there is any possibility of strong magnetic interference.

Do not carry ferromagnetic materials with you during calibration such as keys or cellular phones.

Do not calibrate in direct proximity to large metal objects.

Do not calibrate indoors.

The Enterprise RPAS is equipped with two onboard RTK units.

Real-time Kinematic (RTK) positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.

The Enterprise RPAS utilises various electrical components:
- Flight controller
- IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit)
- PMU ()
- GPS Hardware
- CAN bus systems (Controller Area Network)
- Controller

IOC: Intelligent Orientation Control

Inertial Measurement Units consist of:
- 3 axis gyroscopes
- 3 axis accelerometers
- Barometric pressure sensor

A good way to test the centre of gravity is to lift the RPA by opposing booms and assess any tilting or tipping moments.

The formula of momentum is: p=mv. p - momentum, m - mass, v - velocity.

Kinetic energy is the energy of movement. In a collision, the kinetic energy must be transformed into other forms such as heat, sound and work done in energy of deformation, as energy cannot be created nor destroyed.

The Law of Conservation of Energy states: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but changed into other forms.

Kinetic Energy = Mass x Velocity2 / 2

GPE: Gravitational Potential Energy = m g h
m = mass (kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.6 m/s/s)
h = height above the ground (m)

CASA states that the "higher energy levels of more than 500 Joules can be fatal."

CASA states that approximately 1400 Joules is needed to penetrate a corrugated iron roof with an RPA.

Penetrating Trauma

Blunt Trauma

There are two ways to gain orientation:
- The trial and error method
- Use the IOC "Home Lock" function

Sub 25 KG PRAS: Advanced Features and Emergency Procedures
- Failsale: is designed to be either manually activated by the RPA pilot, or automatically, should connection between the transmitter and the RPA be interrupted or lost.
- IOC: Intelligent Orientation Control

Atti mode or Attitude mode is a selectable function that disables the GPS hold and tracking ability.







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2#
 楼主| 发表于 24-10-2021 21:44:26 | 只看该作者
今天先安装了一个DJI 的无人机模拟器,业余时间可以先在模拟器上熟悉一下操作。
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3#
 楼主| 发表于 15-11-2021 20:07:26 | 只看该作者
本帖最后由 gzhjb 于 15-11-2021 20:17 编辑

Acronyms

MOS - Manual of Standards
BOM - Bureau of Meteorology
CASA - Civil Aviation Safety Authority

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
FIR NOTAM - Flight Information Region Notice to Airmen
CASR - Civil Aviation Safety Regulation

NAIPS - National Aeronautical Information Processing System
Atti Mode - Attitude Mode
P Mode - Position Mode

EST - Eastern Standard Time
CTAF - Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
BAC - Blood Alcohol Content

TEM - Threat and Error Management
UAV - Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
RoC - Rate of Climb

IMU - Inertial Measurement Unit
RPAS - Remotely Piloted Aerial System
UAS - Unmanned Aircraft System

SUAS - Small Unmanned Aircraft System
ESC - Electronic Speed Controller
TAF - Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

RTK - Real Time Kinematic
AoA - Angle of Attack
CG - Centre of Gravity

VNC - Visual Navigation Chart
EFB - Electronic Flight Bag
BVLOS - Beyond Visual Line of Sight




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4#
 楼主| 发表于 15-11-2021 20:22:28 | 只看该作者
本帖最后由 gzhjb 于 15-11-2021 20:28 编辑

Key Points

Atmospheric Pressure is measured in Hectopascals.

Alcohol Levels should be below BAC .02 - Note: 8 hours may not be enough depending on how much Alcohol has been consumed so best practice is - BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) below .02

NAIPS - National Aeronautical Information Processing System - for weather code forecast.

For GPS and RTK systems we require minimum of 7 Satellites.

Atti Mode (Attitude Mode) has NO GPS Signal.

P Mode (Position Mode) has GPS Signal.

Less than 500 J (Joules) has enough energy to cause a fatal accident.

EST - Eastern Standard Time and 10 hours ahead of UTC - Note: this is regardless of Daylight Savings.

How many motor failures can a Hexacopter (6 Props) tolerate in theory: 1

How many motor failures can an Octocopter (8 Props) tolerate in theory: 2

How many motor failure can a Quadcopter (4 Props) tolerate in theory: 0

Human Factors - Indicator of Stress - High Pulse Rate is NOT typically an indicator of Stress.


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5#
 楼主| 发表于 26-11-2021 10:00:46 | 只看该作者
这个月23, 24 号,ZOOM 上课。24号上完课,下午就参加在线的考试,106道选择题,没有全部答到,错了三道,老师说我是仔细过度。

接下来就等学校安排实地操作和实地考试。通过就能执证飞无人机了。
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